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Published On: Sat, Jan 23rd, 2016

Turbocharger

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A turbocharger is a turbine driven forced indication system. Which increases the efficiency of an internal combustion engine and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber. So if you compare a naturally aspirated engine over a turbocharged engine, it is capable of forcing more air into the combustion chamber, there by capable of burning more fuel. The difference between turbocharger and supercharger is that, turbochargers are powered by turbines which gets its drive from the exhaust gas, while superchargers are mechanically driven by v- belt which is connected to the crank shaft. Other than turbochargers and superchargers there are twin turbo chargers, such engines have both turbochargers and superchargers. 

In 1885 Mr. Gottlie Daimler introduced the idea of a forced induction system by a gear driven pump. The turbocharger was invented by Mr. Alfred Buchi who is a Swiss engineer. The normal boost provides by turbocharger or supercharge is 6-8 psi to a naturally aspirated engine. The normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi at sea level, ie. you are able to achieve half more power, almost 50% more power in the engine. There could be other loses so it’s expected to achieve 30 to 40 % more power.

Difference between turbocharger and supercharger:

1. The power supply or the drive for the compressor.

In a supercharged the drive is coming from the engine crank shaft which is mechanically connected by a v- belt. It gets the power in the same fashion as the alternator and water pump gets.

The turbocharger gets its drive from the exhaust gas. The engine exhaust gas passes through a turbine. The turbine is mechanically connected to the compressor using a shaft, thus the compressor gets its drive. 

Theoretically the turbochargers are more efficient because it works on wasted power, ie the exhaust stream. But in the other hand the exhaust gas creates a back pressure in the exhaust stream there by restricting the turbocharger to attain its highest efficiency only at higher Rpm.

2. Expensive

Super chargers are very easy to be installed but are more expensive compared to a turbocharger.

3. Speed and Rpm.

Supercharger spins at an Rpm of 50000 where as the turbocharger runs at an Rpm of 150000, ie almost 30 times faster than a normal engine.

4. Directly connected and not directly connected.

Turbochargr is not directly connected to the engine where as supercharger is directly connected to the engine.  

Supercharger deliver there boost at lower Rpm where as turbochargers work best at higher engine speeds and higher Rpm.

5. Waste gate 

Turbocharger will have waste gate valve where as super chargers will not have waste gate valve.

6. Maintenance 

Supercharger are easier to maintain compared to complex turbochargers. 

7. Sound

Turbochargers are quieter compared to supercharger, superchargers make more sound. 

8. Smog

When coming to smog turbochargers are more smog legal as it has a waste gate valve, but still superchargers have inter cooler and blow off valve. 

What is forced induction ?

The turbocharger and supercharger and forced induction systems. It forces more compressed air into the intake manifold to burn more fuel there by increasing the power output.

What is turbo lag ?

Turbo tag can be explained as the time lag between the demand for maximum boost power and to attain it. When you press the foot pedal for a turbocharged engine there is a time lag to attain the maximum boost as the turbine is powered by the exhaust gas. So at maximum Rpm the turbocharger produces the maximum boost and while attaining this there is a time lag which is called as the turbo lag.

How to reduce turbo lag ?

The turbo lag actually cannot be reduced. The only possible way is to install a smaller turbo to an engine, so that the turbo will spool up much faster. But if you install a larger turbo on a smaller engine, the turbo lag will be much more higher as the engine will take more time to produce the required amount of exhaust gas pressure to spin the turbine at its maximum speed.

Does super chargers have lag ?

It’s not that turbochargers only have lag , superchargers also have lag. Until the supercharger attains a certain speed it cannot make maximum boost. But compared to turbocharger the lag is comparatively less. 

Twin turbocharger and its functions:

As the name itself explains it, the twin turbocharger uses 2 turbochargers to enhance the engine performance and fuel economy.

There are 3 types of twin turbochargers 

1. Parallel twin turbocharger

2. Sequential twin turbocharger

3. Staged twin turbocharger 

1. Parallel twin turbocharger:

So it’s a twin turbo or also be called as a biturbo. In a parallel twin turbo 2 identical turbochargers function simultaneously. In this each turbo is powered by half the exhaust smoke coming from the engine. The compressed air coming from both the turbos are combined in a common intake manifold and send to individual cylinders.

Parallel turbos are usually used in V- shaped engines and are usually mounted with one turbo assigned to each cylinder bank.

Smaller twin turbos can be used in inline engines to have a better performance by reducing the turbo lag using a single turbo.

Examples of parallel twin turbo engines are Nissan’s RB26DETT, BMW’s N54 etc.

2. Sequential twin turbocharger:

In this system 2 turbochargers are used in which one is used in lower engine speeds and at higher speeds the other or both are together used. 

The sequential turbocharger system reduces the possibility of turbo lag with out affecting the boost output and engine power.

3. Staged turbocharging:

In an engine when the output pressure requirement is more than that can be provided by single turbo, a sequential twin turbo can be used and this system is called as staged turbo. In this multiple turbochargers are used, the first turbocharger produces a boost pressure as much as possible, then the 2nd turbocharger takes that charge and further compresses it.

We will be updating this article with more turbochargers related contacts. 

You could ask us doubt at Techtrixinfo@gmail.com or through what’s app at +919744615655

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